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Diabetes mellitus

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Diabetes mellitus
Blue circle for diabetes.svg
Universal blue circle symbol for diabetes.[1]
Pronunciation
Specialty Endocrinology
Symptoms Frequent urination, increased thirst, increased hunger[2]
Complications Diabetic ketoacidosis, nonketotic hyperosmolar coma, heart disease, stroke, chronic kidney failure, foot ulcers[2][3]
Diagnostic method High blood sugar[2]
Treatment Healthy diet, physical exercise[2]
Medication Insulin, metformin[2][4]
Frequency 415 million (8.5%)[2][5]
Deaths 1.5–5.0 million per year[5][6]

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.[7] Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger.[2] If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications.[2] Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death.[3] Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.[2]

Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin, or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced.[8] There are three main types of diabetes mellitus:[2]

  • Type 1 DM results from the pancreas’s failure to produce enough insulin due to loss of beta cells.[2] This form was previously referred to as “insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus” (IDDM) or “juvenile diabetes”.[2] The cause is unknown.[2]
  • Type 2 DM begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly.[2] As the disease progresses a lack of insulin may also develop.[9] This form was previously referred to as “non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus” (NIDDM) or “adult-onset diabetes”.[2] The most common cause is excessive body weight and insufficient exercise.[2]
  • Gestational diabetes is the third main form, and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood sugar levels.[2]

Prevention and treatment involve maintaining a healthy diet, regular physical exercise, a normal body weight, and avoiding use of tobacco.[2] Control of blood pressure and maintaining proper foot care are important for people with the disease.[2] Type 1 DM must be managed with insulin injections.[2] Type 2 DM may be treated with medications with or without insulin.[6] Insulin and some oral medications can cause low blood sugar.[10] Weight loss surgery in those with obesity is sometimes an effective measure in those with type 2 DM.[11] Gestational diabetes usually resolves after the birth of the baby.[12]

As of 2015, an estimated 415 million people had diabetes worldwide,[5] with type 2 DM making up about 90% of the cases.[13][14] This represents 8.3% of the adult population,[14] with equal rates in both women and men.[15] As of 2014, trends suggested the rate would continue to rise.[16] Diabetes at least doubles a person’s risk of early death.[2] From 2012 to 2015, approximately 1.5 to 5.0 million deaths each year resulted from diabetes.[5][6] The global economic cost of diabetes in 2014 was estimated to be US$612 billion.[17] In the United States, diabetes cost $245 billion in 2012.[18]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diabetes_mellitus

 

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